THE CANADIAN THEOSOPHIST

The Theosophical Society is not responsible for any statement in this Magazine, unless made in an official document


VOL. XVI., No. 5. HAMILTON, JULY 15th, 1935 Price 10 Cents


"PSYCHICS AND MEDIUMS"

There has been little communication between Theosophists and Spiritualists since the early days of Madame Blavatsky's effort show that the psychic world is a world of Maya, and to expound its laws to those who had made their minds up that only one explanation could be accepted for the phenomena of the seance room. It is not the fault of the Theosophists that a closer relation has not been established between the two bodies of people who represent in the West, a real and actual belief in the existence of other planes of consciousness, and are not fettered by the material belief that death ends alI. We have received a volume entitled "Psychics and Mediums" by Gertrude Ogden Tubby, (Marshall Jones Company, Boston, $2.) which purports to be "an authoritative guide and a valuable source book" by the author, who "was for 17 yrs. Assistant Secretary and Secretary in the American Society for Psychical Research," and "has personably conducted and recorded verbatim more than 4000 mediumistic seances."

Here if anywhere one should get light on the subject of spiritualism, but we still find that Spiritualists are as loth to study Patanjali or the Mahatma Letters as Christian theologians are, to read' Sankaracharya or the Upanishads. The western Church idea, which even St. Augustine did not hold, that Christianity was a unique religion. All these things are as old as the world, and if we wish to know about them we should study the ancient records, and then compare or corroborate our experiences with the experience of the ancients.

In a bibliography filling 14 pages, however, Miss Tubby finds no earlier authority than Katie Fox and the Psychic Research Society. The Theosophical records are tabooed. This leads us to fear that she may be somewhat biased in her views. We have about forty of the books listed and about a hundred more on the subject and have read a good many of the others listed, and believe that it requires acquaintance with both sides of the subject to obtain an intelligent understanding of it. Miss Tubby calls for investigators "with scientific laboratory experience, and psychological training and insight - especially insight combined with a detached and unemotional temperament which does not become partisan in support of special cases and particular sensitives, but is devoted to the pursuit of Truth whether she lead to the mire or the mountain top."

Theosophy, we submit, may be classed with the mire, but still is worthy of investigation. Miss Tubby admits that


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"real workers in the field must be able to face discouragement from others, and the baffling phenomena of the hysteric, trick playing psychic, and emerge from the ordeal with a few precious and triumphant facts as the reward of a lifework." This is admirable, but also discouraging when one compares it with the records of the ancients and the, easterns.

A series, of articles on Odic Force in Casil Family Magazine printed in the middle sixties attracted my attention in my boyhood and in 1870 a traveling lecturer, Charles Pearce, stayed at our house one evening and talked spiritualism and cognate matters to my intense interest, so that I was ready for any further information that transpired in subsequent years. But it was not till Madame Blavatsky's writing appeared that anything coherent and logical was to be met with. It must early have occurred to investigators that anything of real evidential value in psychic or spiritual matter must be a personal experience. What happens to another is only second hand evidence, hearsay, so to speak, and the only conclusive experience is what happens in one's own aura or sphere of consciousness, and even then must be checked up to prevent illusion or the super-imposing of a superior will, or the willing self-deception which is more subtle than anything.

The regal weakness of mediumship is that the medium is unconscious, usually, of all that occurs. The unconscious medium is the weak spot in spiritualism. The occultist never loses consciousness, whether in sleep or in such trances as are common to the trained psychic. The ordinary medium goes into a trances and knows nothing of what happens till he wakes up. A further stage of development, is that in which phenomena occur in the presence of a medium who does not lose consciousness, but is unable to say what will happen, or to control the phenomena. The real occultist controls the phenomena, and may cause apparent miracles or what are called miracles by the uninformed.

Miss Tubby adduces Arthur Ford as a psychic, originally an orthodox ordained minister . . . . . . "who works in full consciousness." Mrs. Wreidt is a medium of this type, very superior to most, who does not lose consciousness, but using a trumpet, continues to converse with her sitters while several voices may be speaking from the trumpet at the same time. Count Miatovich has given an account of his remarkable experiences with Mrs. Wreidt.

Madame Blavatsky was not a medium in this sense at all. She caused phenomena to occur at her own will, and at the instance of anyone who might be present. No spiritualist has ever been able to parallel her performances, and though young Dr Hodgson, when a lad of 22, professed to have exposed her "tricks" he never investigated her at all, but only heard secondhand accounts of her phenomena, and being then in the skeptical stage of his boyish experience was unable to accept their truth, though be afterwards became a convinced spiritualist and swallowed without hesitation much more questionable wonders.

"No agent," says Miss Tubby, "can lead a hypnotized subject to act in a way that would do violence to his own moral character." This is to minimize the strength of the powers of evil. When such beings are willing to risk the penalty and exert their utmost guile, it is not for ordinary mortals to set a limit to their powers. Of course, they must eventually pay, for all life is under law. Consciousness, she states, is its own master. But this is not the point. Consciousness can only manifest through a vehicle, and it is not consciousness, but the vehicles of consciousness that are and can be dominated.

Miss Tubby has gone as far as accepting the existence of the astral body, of which Theosophical literature is so full, but she never alludes to any Theosophical testimony on the subject. This is her unbiased mind, no doubt. Reincarnation is dismissed in a paragraph, and explained by the suggestion that an obsessing personality may throw ideas into the subliminal


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consciousness of the person's normal consciousness. This is noted as a "new light." Hallucination plays a great part in Miss Tubby's explanations: collective hallucinations where two or more people see the same thing or hear it at the same time and it wasn't there at all. After this it is well to note (page 42) that "it is the province of science to reduce to order the motley of facts in a given realm, and it is this which psychic science has to do in its study of the conscious, subconscious, subliminal and supernormal contents of the mind and their inter


-relationships."

Here are at least four states of consciousness, and when we add the physical body, the life principle, and astral body there need not be as much objection taken to the septenary principles of Theosophy. It may be well to recall that as far back as 1877 the Religio-Philosophical Journal of Chicago began a series of interviews on October 13th of that year with a medium, Mrs. M. J. Hollis-Billing, when her control, called Jim Nolan, related the method by which forms are made to appear at seances.

The electric particles, he said, in the room were taken and collected and laid upon one another till they made a form. "We then take magnetism from the medium or from the sitters in the circle and with it coat this electrical form. After this the form is used by the `spirit' who steps into it and uses it as a form." Another way Nolan explained was this: "We gather those particles to which I have referred, and going into the astral light, we reflect upon them the face of some spirit and thus a reflected image of a spirit is seen." Again he says: "The materialized form shown never belonged to the physical part of that spirit. It consists of chemical, electrical, and magnetic particles or elements from the atmosphere."

On October 17 he said at a sitting: "The Astral Light, spoken of by ancient men, is what we call magnetic light. All the acts of life are photographed in the astral light of each individual; the astral light retains all those peculiar things which occur to you from day to day." Modern spiritualism rejected this teaching of its own authorities, and it is unfortunate that students like Miss Tubby do not follow up these clues.

Occultism has been defined by Madame Blavatsky, as "the study of the workings of the Universal Mind." This takes us from the form side of nature to the inner or will side or conscious side. Miss Tubby gives instruction how to develop mediumship. If she restricted such development to conscious effort in fathoming the depths of the human mind, instead of plunging it into oblivion without a pilot, she would do the world a service. Among the advices given to groups of sitters is to "assemble before, not after a meal, and alcoholic beverages are to be avoided before a sitting. The psychic threshold is too unstable under the stimulus of alcohol. Sub-conscious and other associations, emerge under the stimulus of alcohol that are undesirable and may even prove harmful or dangerous."

On the ordinary psychic levels the utmost caution is required to prevent evil forces taking control. Miss Tubby is aware of this, and frequently alludes to the danger. On page 125 she says: "It is unwise to join classes or circles for development under any chance psychic, concerning whose skill and good faith one cannot be assured by qualified experts. The effect of such work might be dubious and confusing, if not even positively harmful. Psychic investigations must be entered upon as carefully and seriously as any laboratory study. It is far more foolish to go into haphazard psychic than into haphazard chemical research, for mental and spiritual damage and waste are even more directly personal and intimate than physical injury."

Of course, for those who have committed themselves to the Spiritualistic faith, Miss Tubby's instructions will be found to meet their wishes in all respects, but even a little thought will indicate that there may



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be a better way. There is much in what she says of invisible helpers and guides, "whose function it is to lead the psychic to correct information from various possible supernormal sources," that may be of interest to Theosophical students. She also quotes from Sir William Crookes, who was a member of the Theosophical Society in Madame Blavatsky's time, and from her gained much knowledge on the subject upon which Miss Tubby now quotes him.

Natural psychics are described on page 120 and this curious comment follows an account of such an one: "His psychic experience is no stranger to him than the sun or the wind. It would take long effort and training to bring about any such development in one not thus attended naturally, but it is just the sort of thing reported by and of such persons as Helena Blavatsky or Annie Besant. They have dressed it all up in a metaphysical theory and religious reverence, but the fundamental fact remains that some persons are thus endowed. They are natural psychics".

Well Annie Besant was not a natural psychic, nor any kind of a psychic, but a purely intellectual genius. Madame Blavatsky was a natural psychic and spent many years of the most difficult and arduous training to get rid of her natural psychism, and to develop the occult powers on a higher plane which are a million times more important than any psychism. She could have taught the spiritualistic world wonderful things and set them on the highest levels as teachers of the race. But they rejected and still reject the information she brought, corroborated as it was by many spiritualists.

What she said may be of interest to Miss Tubby in connection with her remarks on invisible helpers. On page 233, volume I, of The Secret Doctrine, she makes this note. "The so-called `Spirits' that may occasionally possess themselves of the bodies of mediums are not the Monads or Higher Principles of disembodied personalities. Such a `Spirit' can only be either an Elementary, or - a Nirmanakaya. H.P.B. thinks this hint worth repeating and it may be found on page 151 of The Key to Theosophy, where, speaking of they impossibility of communicating with a disembodied spirit, she mentions two exceptions, the first being during the few days that follow immediately after the death of a person, and before the Ego passes into the Devachanic state. "The second exception is found in the Nirmanakayas." "They have no material body," she explains of these adepts or saints, "as they have left it behind"; but otherwise they remain with all their principles even in astral life in our sphere. And such can and do communicate with a few elect ones, only surely not with ordinary mediums."

And perhaps there is more for the serious student ins this hint than in all Miss Tubby's volume, sincere and earnest, as it undoubtedly is, and the result of 17 years experience and study. Our spiritualist friends do not care to follow Theosophical suggestions, but we should have the kindliest feelings for them. They were those to whom first the message of the nineteenth century was carried, and if their leaders at that time chose to ignore it, it was the rank and file of spiritualists that suffered. The Society for Psychic Research took up the task of discrediting the Theosophical Movement by another false lead, for human nature is perverse, but the Secret Doctrine is still available for all.

- A. E. S. S.


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Pressure on our space has compelled us to hold over a valuable communication on the recognition by Professor Jung of Higher Spirituality. This will appear next month. We have received as we go to press the Third Volume of Madame Blavatsky's Collected Works, from Messrs. Rider & Co., and hope to give a review of it in August. We have also received a complimentary copy of "The Friendly Philosopher," articles by the late Robert Crosbie, which we shall have pleasure in reviewing.




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INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY AND WRITINGS OF PLATO

By Thomas Taylor


(Continued from Page 104)


And now having with venturous, vet unpresuming wing, ascended to the ineffable principle of things, and standing with every eye closed in the vestibules of the adytum, found that we could announce nothing concerning him, but only indicate our doubts and disappointment, and having thence descended to his occult and most venerable progeny, and passing through the luminous world of ideas, holding fast by the golden chain of deity, terminated our downward flight in the material universe, and its undecaying wholes, let us stop awhile and contemplate the sublimity and magnificence of the scene which this journey presents to our view. Here then we see the vast empire of deity, an empire terminated upwards by a principle so ineffable that all language is subverted about it, and downwards, by the vast body of the world. Immediately subsisting after this immense unknown we in the next place behold a mighty all


-comprehending one, which as being next to that which is in every respect incomprehensible, possesses much of the ineffable and unknown. From this principle of principles, in which all things casually subsist absorbed in superessential light and involved in unfathomable depths, we view a beauteous progeny of principles, all largely partaking of the ineffable, all stamped with the occult characters of deity, all possessing an over-flowing fullness of good. From these dazzling summits, these ineffable blossoms, these divine propagations, we next see being, life, intellect, soul, nature and body depending; monads suspended from unities, deified natures proceeding from deities. Each of these monads too, is the leader of a series which extends from itself to the last of things, and which while it proceeds from, at the same time abides in, and returns to its leader. And all these principles and all their progeny are finally centred, and rooted by their summits in the first great all-comprehending one. Thus all beings proceed from, and are comprehended in the first being; all intellects emanate from one first intellect; all souls from one first soul; all natures blossom from one first nature; and all bodies proceed from the vital and luminous body of



[[Protrait of Taylor here]] - From the portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence by courtesy of the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.



the world. And lastly, all these great monads are comprehended in the first one, from which both they and all their depending series are unfolded into light. Hence this first one is truly the unity of unities, the monad of monads, the principle of principles, the God of gods, one and all things, and yet one prior to all.

Such, according to Plato, are the flights of the true philosopher, such the August and magnificent scene which presents itself to his view. By ascending these luminous



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heights, the spontaneous tendencies of the soul to deity alone find the adequate object of their desire; investigation here alone finally reposes, doubt expires in certainty, and knowledge loses itself in the ineffable.

And here perhaps some grave objector, whose little soul is indeed acute, but sees nothing with a vision healthy and sound, will say that all this is very magnificent, but that it is soaring too high for man; that it is merely the effect of spiritual pride; that no truths, either in morality or theology, are of any importance which are not adapted to the level of the meanest capacity; and that all that it is necessary for man to know concerning either God or himself is so plain, that he that runs may read. In answer to such like cant, for it is nothing more, - a cant produced by the most profound ignorance, and frequently attended with the most deplorable envy, I ask, is then the Delphic precept, KNOW THYSELF, a trivial mandate? Can this be accomplished by every man? Or can any one properly know himself without knowing the rank he holds in the scale of being? And can this be effected without knowing what are the natures which he surpasses, and what those are by which he is surpassed? And can he know this without knowing as much of those natures as it is possible for him to know? And will the objector be hardy enough to say that every man is equal to this arduous task? That he who rushes from the forge, or the mines, with a soul distorted, crushed and bruised by base mechanical arts, and madly presumes to teach theology to a deluded audience, is master of this sublime, this most important science? For my own part I know of no truths which are thus obvious, thus accessible to every man, but axioms, those self-evident principles of science which are conspicuous by their own light, which are the spontaneous unperverted conceptions of the soul, and to which he who does not assent deserves, as Aristotle justly remarks, either pity or correction. In short, if this is to be the criterion of all moral and theological knowledge, that it must be immediately obvious to every man, that it is to be apprehended by the most careless inspection, what occasion is there for seminaries of learning? Education is ridiculous, the toil of investigation is idle. Let us at once confine Wisdom in

the dungeons of Folly, recall Ignorance from her barbarous wilds, and close the gates of Science with everlasting bars.

Having thus taken a general survey of the great world, and descended from the intelligible to the sensible universe, let us still, adhering to that golden chain which is bound round the summit of Olympus, and from which all things are suspended, descend to the microcosm man. For man comprehends in himself partially everything which the world contains divinely and totally. Hence, according to Pluto, he is endued with an intellect subsisting in energy, and a rational soul proceeding from the same father and vivific goddess as were the causes of the intellect and soul of the universe. He has likewise an ethereal vehicle analogous to the heavens, and a terrestrial body, composed from the four elements, and with which also it is coordinate.

With respect to his rational part, for in this the essence of man consists, we have already shown that it is of a self-motive nature, and that it subsists between intellect, which is immovable both in essence and energy, and nature, which both moves and is moved. In consequence of this middle subsistence, the mundane soul, from which all partial souls are derived, is said by Plato in the Timaeus, to be a medium between that which is indivisible and that which is divisible about bodies, i.e. the mundane soul is a medium between the mundane intellect, and the whole of that corporeal life which the world participates. In like manner, the human soul is a medium between a daemoniacal intellect proximately, established above our essence, which it also elevates and perfects, and that corporeal life which is distributed about our body, and which is the cause of its generation, nutrition and increase.



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This daemoniacal intellect is called by Plato, in the Phaedrus, theoretic and, the governor of the soul. The highest part therefore of the human soul is the summit of the dianoetic power (to akrotaton tes dianoias), or that power which reasons scientifically; and this summit is our intellect. As, however, our very essence is characterized by reason, this our summit is rational, and though it subsists in energy, yet it has a remitted union with things themselves. Though too it energizes from itself, and contains intelligibles in its essence, yet from its alliance to the discursive nature of soul, and its inclination to that which is divisible, it falls short of the perfection of an intellectual essence and energy profoundly indivisible and united, and the intelligibles which it contains degenerate from the transcendently fulged and self-luminous nature of first intelligibles. Hence, in obtaining a perfectly indivisible knowledge, it requires to be perfected by an intellect whose energy is ever vigilant and unremitted; and it's intelligibles, that they may become perfect, are indigent of the light which proceeds from separate intelligibles. Aristotle, therefore, very properly compares the intelligibles of our intellect to colors, because these require the splendour of the sun, and denominates an intellect of this kind, intellect in capacity, both on account of its subordination to an essential intellect, and because it is from a separate intellect that it receives the full perfection of its nature. The middle part of the rational soul is called by Plato, dianoia, and is that power which, as we have already said, reasons scientifically, deriving the principles of its reasoning, which are axioms from intellect. And the extremity of the rational soul is opinion, which in his Sophista he defines to be that power which knows the conclusion of dianoia. This power also knows the universal in sensible particulars, as that every man is a biped, but it knows only the oti, or that a thing is, but is ignorant of the dioti, or why it is: knowledge of the latter kind being the province of the dianoetic power.

And such is Plato's division of the rational part of our nature, which he very justly considers as the true man; the essence of every thing consisting in its most excellent part.

After this follows the irrational nature, the summit of which is the phantasy, or that power which perceives every thing accompanied with figure and interval; and on this account it may be called a figured intelligence (morphotike noesis). This power, as Jamblichus beautifully observes, groups upon, as it were, and fashions all the powers of the soul; exciting in opinion the illuminations from the senses, and fixing in that life which is extended with body, the impressions which descend from intellect. Hence, slays Proclus, it folds itself about the indivisibility of true intellect, conforms itself to all formless species, and becomes perfectly every thing, from which the dianoetic power and our indivisible reason consists. Hence too, it is all things passively which intellect is impassively, and on this account Aristotle calls it passive intellect. Under this subsist anger and desire, the former resembling a raging lion, and the latter a many-headed beast; and the whole is bounded by sense, which is nothing more than a passive perception of things, and on this account is justly said by Plato, to be rather passion than knowledge; since the former of these is characterized by alertness, and the latter by energy.

Further still, in order that the union of the soul with this gross terrestrial body may be effected in a becoming manner, two vehicles, according to Plato, are necessary as media, one of which is ethereal, and the other aerial, and of these, the ethereal vehicle is simple and immaterial, but the aerial, simple and material; and this dense earthly body is composite and material.

The soul thus subsisting as a medium between natures impartible and such as are divided about bodies, it produces and constitutes the latter of these; but establishes



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in itself the prior causes from which it proceeds. Hence it previously receives, after the manner of an exemplar, the natures to which it is prior as their cause; but it possesses through participation, and as the blossoms of first natures, the causes of its subsistence. Hence it contains in its essence immaterial forms of things material, incorporeal of such as are corporeal, and extended of such as are distinguished by interval. But it contains intelligibles after the manner of an image, and receives partibly their impartible forms, such as are uniform variously, and such as are immovable, according to a self-motive condition. Soul therefore is all things, and is elegantly said by Olympiodorus to be an omniform statue (pammorphon agalma): for it contains such things as are first through participation, but such as are posterior to its nature, after the manner of an exemplar.

As, too, it is always moved; and this always is not eternal, but temporal, for that which is properly eternal, and such is intellect, is perfectly stable, and has no transitive energies, hence it is necessary that its motions should be periodic. For motion is a certain mutation from some things into others. And beings are terminated by multitudes and magnitudes. These therefore being terminated, there can neither be an infinite mutation, according to a right line, nor can that which is always moved proceed according to a finished progression. Hence that which is always moved will proceed from the same to the same; and will thus form a periodic motion. Hence, too, the human, and this also is true of every mundane soul, uses periods and restitutions of its proper life. For, in consequence of being measured by time, it energizes transitively, and possesses a proper motion. But every thing which is moved perpetually and participates of time, revolves periodically and proceeds from the same to the same. And hence the soul, from possessing motion, and energizing according to time, will both possess periods of motion and restitutions to its pristine state.

Again, as the human soul, according to Plato, ranks among the number of those souls that sometimes follow the mundane divinities, in consequence of subsisting immediately after daemons and heroes, the perpetual attendants of they gods, hence it possesses a power of descending infinitely into generation, or the sublunary region, and of ascending from generation to real being. For since it does not reside with divinity through an infinite time, neither will it be conversant with bodies through the whole succeeding time. For that which has no temporal beginning, both according to Plato and Aristotle, cannot have an end; and that which has no end, is necessarily without a beginning. It remains, therefore, that every soul must perform periods, both of ascensions from generation, and of descensions into generation; and that this will never fail, through an infinite time.

From all this it follows that the soul, while an inhabitant of earth, is in a fallen condition, an apostate from deity, an exile from the orb of light. Hence Plato, in the 7th book of his Republic, considering our life with reference to erudition and the want of it, assimilates us to men in a subterranean cavern, who have been there confined from their childhood, and so fettered by chains as to be only able to look before them to the entrance of the cave which expands to the light, but incapable through the chain of turning themselves round. He supposes too, that they have the light of a fire burning far above and behind them; and that between the fire and the fettered men, there is a road above, along which a low wall is built. On this wall are seen men bearing utensils of every kind, and statues in wood and stone of men and other animals. And of these men some are speaking and others silent. With respect to the fettered men in this cave, they see nothing of themselves or another, or of what is carrying along, but the shadows formed by the fire falling on the opposite part of tho cave. He supposes too, that


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the opposite part of this prison has an echo; and that in consequence of this the fettered men, when they hear any one speak, will imagine that it is nothing else than the passing shadow.

Here, in the first place, as we have observed in the notes on that book, the road above between the fire and the fettered men, indicates that there is a certain ascent in the cave itself from a more abject to a more elevated life. By this ascent, therefore Plato signifies the contemplation of dianoetic objects in the mathematical disciplines. For as the shadows in the cave correspond to the shadows of visible objects, and visible objects are the immediate images of dianoetic forms, or those ideas which the soul essentially participates, it is evident that the objects from which these shadows are formed must correspond to such as are dianoetic. It is requisite, therefore, that the dianoetic power exercising itself in these, should draw forth the principles of these from their latent retreats, and should contemplate them not in images, but as subsisting in herself in impartible involution.

In the next place he says, "that the man who is to be led from the cave will more easily see what the heavens contain, and the heavens themselves, by looking in the night to the light of the stars, and the moon, than by day looking on the sun, and the light of the sun." By this he signifies the contemplation of intelligibles: for the stars and their light are imitations of intelligibles, so far as all of them partake of the form of the sun, in the same manner as intelligibles are characterized by the nature of the good.

After the contemplation of these, and after the eye is accustomed through these to the light, as it is requisite in the visible region to see the sun himself in the last place, in like manner, according to Plato, the idea of the good must be seen the last in the intelligible region. He, likewise divinely adds, that it is scarcely to be seen; for we can only be conjoined with it through the intelligible, in the vestibule of which it is beheld by the ascending soul.

In short, the cold, according to Plato, can only be restored while on earth to the divine likeness, which she abandoned by her descent, and be able after death to re-ascend to the intelligible world, by the exercise of the cathartic and theoretic virtues; the former purifying her from the defilements of a mortal nature, and the latter elevating her to the vision of true being: for thus, as Plato says in the Timaeus, "the soul becoming sane and entire, will arrive at the form of her pristine habit." The cathartic, however, must necessarily precede the theoretic virtues; since it is impossible to survey truth while subject to the perturbation anal tumult of the passions. For the rational soul subsisting as a medium between intellect and the irrational nature, can then only without revulsion associate with the intellect prior to herself, when she becomes pure from copassivity with inferior natures. By the cathartic virtues, therefore, we become sane, in consequence of being liberated from the passions as diseases; but we become entire by the reassumption of intellect and science as of our proper parts; and this is effected by contemplative truth. Plato also clearly teaches us that our apostacy from better natures is only to be healed by a flight from hence, when he defines in his Thaetetus philosophy to be a flight from terrestrial evils: for he evinces by this that passions are connascent with mortals alone. He likewise says in the same dialogue, "that neither can evil be abolished, nor yet do they subsist with the gods, but that they necessarily revolve about this terrene abode, and a mortal nature." For those who are obnoxious to generation and corruption can also be affected in a manner contrary to nature, which is the beginning of evils. But in the same dialogue he subjoins the mode by which our flight from evil is to be accomplished. "It is necessary," says he "to fly from hence thither: but the flight is a similitude to divinity, as far as is possible to man; and this similitude consists



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in becoming just and holy in conjunction with intellectual prudence." For it is necessary that he who wishes to run from evils, should in the first place turn away from a mortal nature; since it is not possible for those who are mingled with it to avoid being filled with its attendant evils. As therefore, through our flight from divinity, and the defluction of those wings which elevate us on high, we fell into this mortal abode, and thus became connected with evils, so by abandoning passivity with a mortal nature, and by the germination of the virtues, as of certain wings, we return to the abode of pure and true good, and to the possession of divine felicity. For the essence of many subsisting as a medium between daemoniacal natures, who always have an intellectual knowledge of divinity, and those beings who are never adapted by nature to understand him, it ascends to the former and descends to the latter, through the possession and desertion of intellect. For it becomes familiar both with the divine and brutal likeness, through the amphibious condition of its nature.

When the soul therefore has recovered her pristine perfection in as great a degree as is possible, while she is an inhabitant of earth by the exercise of the cathartic and theoretic virtues, she returns after death, as he says in the Timaeus, to her kindred star, from which she fell, and enjoys a blessed life. Then, too, as he says in the Phaedrus, being winged, she governs the world in conjunction with the gods. And this indeed is the most beautiful end of her labors. This is what he calls in the Phaedo, a great contest and a mighty hope. This is the most perfect fruit of philosophy to familiarize and lea, her back to things truly beautiful, to liberate her from this terrene abode as from a certain subterranean cavern of material life, elevate her to ethereal splendors, and place her in the islands of the blessed.

From this account of the human soul, that most important Platonic dogma necessarily follows, that our soul essentially contains all knowledge, and that whatever knowledge she acquires in the present life, is in reality nothing more than a recovery of what a he once possessed. This recovery is very properly called by Plato reminiscence, not as being attended with actual recollection in the present life, but as being an actual repossession of what the soul had lost through her oblivious union with the body. Alluding to this essential knowledge of the soul, which discipline evocates from its dormant retreats, Plato says in the Sophista, "that we know all things as in a dream, and are again ignorant of them, according to vigilant perception." Hence too, as Proclus well observes, it is evident that the soul does not collect her knowledge from sensibles, nor from things partial and divisible discover the whole and the one. For it is not proper to think that things which have in no respect a real subsistence, should be the leading causes of knowledge to the soul; and that things which oppose each other and are ambiguous, should precede science which has a sameness of subsistence; nor that things which are variously mutable, should be generative of reasons which are established in unity; nor that things indefinite should be the causes of definite intelligence. It is not fit, therefore, that the truth of things eternal should be received from the many, nor the discrimination of universals from sensibles, nor a judgment respecting what is good from irrational natures; but it is requisite that the soul entering within herself, should investigate herself the true and the good, and the eternal reasons of things.


(To Be Continued.)


**********


BOOKS BY CHARLES JOHNSTON


- Bhagavad Gita ..... cloth $1.25........... leather $1.75

- Crest Jewel of Wisdom cloth ...........$1.25

- Great Upanishads, vol. I. .......... cloth $1.50

- Parables of the Kingdom paper .............50

- Patanjali's Yoga Sutras cloth............. $1.25

- Song of Life paper............ .75


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THROUGH THE GATES OF GOLD

A FRAGMENT OF THOUGHT

By Mabel Collins


(Continued from Page 111)


II.


The words "to create" are often understood by the ordinary mind to convey the idea of evolving something out of nothing. This is clearly not its meaning; we are mentally obliged to provide our Creator with chaos from which to produce the worlds. The tiller of the soil, who is the typical producer of social life, must have his material, his earth, his sky, rain, and sun, and the seed to place within the earth. Out of nothing he can produce nothing. Out of a void Nature cannot arise; there is that material beyond, behind, or within, from which she is shaped by our desire for a universe. It is an evident fact that the seeds and the earth, air, and water which cause them to germinate exist on every plane of action. If you talk to an inventor, you will find that far ahead of what he is now doing he can always perceive some other thing to be done which he cannot express in words because as yet he has not drawn it into our present world of objects. That knowledge of the unseen is even more definite in the poet, and more inexpressible until he has touched it with some part of that consciousness which he shares with other men. But in strict proportion to his greatness; he lives in the consciousness which the ordinary man does not even believe can exist; the consciousness which dwells in the greater universe, which breathes in the vaster air, which beholds a wide earth and sky, and snatches seeds from plants of giant growth.

It is this place of consciousness that we need to reach out to. That it is not reserved only for men of genius is shown by the fact that martyrs and heroes have found it and dwelt in it. It is not reserved, for men of genius only, but it can only be found by men of great soul.

In this fact there is no need for discouragement. Greatness in many is popularly supposed to be a thing inborn. This belief must be a result of want of thought, of blindness to facts of nature. Greatness can only be attained by growth; that is continually demonstrated to us. Even the mountains, even the firm globe itself, these are great by dint of the mode of growth peculiar to that state of materiality, - accumulation of atoms. As the consciousness inherent in all existing forms passes into more advanced forms of life it becomes more active, and in proportion it acquires the power of growth by assimilation instead of accumulation. Looking at existence from this special point of view (which indeed is a difficult one to maintain for long, as we habitually look at life in planes and forget the great lines which connect and run through these), we immediately perceive it to be reasonable to suppose that as we advance beyond our present standpoint the power of growth by assimilation will become greater and probably change into a method yet more rapid, easy, and unconscious. The universe is, in fact, full of magnificent promise for us, if we will but lift our eyes and see. It is that lifting of the eyes which is the first need and the first difficulty; we are so apt readily to be content with what we see within touch of our hands. It is the essential characteristic of the man of genius that he is comparatively indifferent to that fruit which is just within touch, and hungers for that which is afar on the hills. In fact he does not need the sense of contact to arouse longing. He knows that this distant fruit which he perceives without the aid of the physical senses, is a subtler and a stronger food than any which appeals to them. And how is he rewarded! When he tastes that fruit, how strong and sweet is its flavor, and what a new sense of life rushes upon him! For in recognizing that flavor he has recognized the existence of the subtile senses, those which feed the life of the inner man; and it is by the strength of



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that inner man, and by his strength only, that the latch of the Golden Gates can be lifted.

In fact it is only by the development and growth of the inner man that the existence of these Gates, and of that to which they admit, can be even perceived. While man is content with his gross senses and care, nothing for his subtile ones, the Gates remain literally invisible. As to the boor the gateway of the intellectual life is as a thing uncreate and non-existent, so to the man of the gross senses, even if his intellectual life is active, than which lies beyond is uncreate and non-existent, only because he does not open the book.

To the servant who dusts the scholar's library the closed volumes are meaningless; they do not even appear to contain a promise unless he also is a scholar, not merely a servant. It is possible to gaze throughout eternity upon a shut exterior from sheer indolence, - mental indolence, which is incredulity, and which at last men learn to pride themselves on; they call it skepticism, and talk of the reign of reason. It is no more a state to justify pride than of the Eastern sybarite, who will not even lift his food to his mouth; he is "reasonable" also in that he sees no value in activity, and therefore does not exercise it. So with the skeptic; decay follows the condition of inaction, whether it be mental, psychic, or physical.


III.


And now let us consider how the initial difficulty of fastening the interest on that which is unseen is to be overcome. Our gross senses refer only to that which is objective in the ordinary sense of the word; but just beyond this field of life there are finer sensations which appeal to finer senses. Here we find the first clue to the stepping stones we need. Man looks from this point of view like a point where many rays or lines centre; and if he has the courage or the interest to detach himself from the simplest form of life, the point, and explore but a little way along these lines or rays, his whole being at once in-


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vitably widens and expands, the man begins to grow in greatness. But it is evident, if we accept this illustration as a fairly true one, that the chief point of importance is to explore no more persistently on one line than another; else the result must be a deformity. We all know how powerful is the majesty and personal dignity of a forest tree which has had air enough to breathe, and room for its widening roots, and inner vitality with which to accomplish its unceasing task. It obeys the perfect natural law of growth, and the peculiar awe it inspires arises from this fact.

How is it possible to obtain recognition of the inner man, to observe its growth and foster it?

Let us try to follow a little way the clue we have obtained, though words will probably soon be useless.

We must each travel alone and without aides, as the traveler has to climb alone when he nears the summit of the mountain. No beast of burden can help him there; neither can the gross senses or anything that touches the gross senses help him here. But for a little distance words may go with us.

The tongue recognizes the value of sweetness, or piquancy in food. To the man whose senses are of the simplest order there is no other idea of sweetness than this. But a finer essence, a more highly placed sensation of the same order is reached by another perception. The sweetness of the face of a lovely woman, or in the smile of a friend, is recognized by the man whose inner senses have even a little - a mere stirring of - vitality. To the one who has lifted the golden latch the spring of sweet waters, the fountain itself whence all softness arises, is opened and becomes part of his heritage.

But before this fountain can be tasted, or any other spring reached, any source found, a heavy weight has to be lifted from the heart, an iron bar which holds it down and prevents it from arising in its strength.


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The man who recognizes the flow of sweetness from its source through Nature, through all forms of life, he has lifted this, he has raised himself into that state in which there is no bondage. He knows that he is a part of the great whole, and it is this knowledge which is his heritage. It is through the breaking asunder of the arbitrary bond which holds him to his personal centre that he comes of age and becomes ruler of his kingdom. As he widens out, reaching by manifold experience along those lines which centre at the point where he stands embodied, he discovers that he has touch with all life, that he contains within himself the whole. And then he has but to yield himself to the great force which we call good, to clasp it tightly with the grasp of his soul, and he is carried swiftly on to the great, wide waters of real living. What are those waters? In our present life we have but the shadow of the substance. No man loves without satiety, no man drinks wine without return of thirst. Hunger and longing darken the sky and make the earth unfriendly. What we need is an earth that will bear living fruit, a sky that will be always full of light. Needing this positively, we shall surely find it.


(To Be Continued.)


*******


THE REPRINT OF H.P.B.'s WORKS

Volume Three is announced as "ready shortly"; uniform with previous volumes. Postpaid $4.50



-

The "AFFIRMATIONS" Library consists to date, of 34 titles. Cr. 8vo., each 35c or 3 for $1.00

The Series includes:-

Energy, Human and Divine, Rt. Rev. Dr. David; The Ascent of Man, A. A. Milne; Truth and Tradition, Chas. E. Raven; The Sin Obsession, P. Dearmer; The Place of Sex in Life, T. W. Pym; Faith and Reason, R.. G. Collingwood; The Religion We Need, Prof. Radhakrishnan; The Problem of Pain, R. W. MacKenna; A Reasonable Faith, Dr. V. Bartlett; The Problem of Evil, A. E. Taylor; Fear and Religion, Rev. G. H. Woolley, V.C., M.G.; Reality of Spiritual World, Sir O. Lodge.


N. W. J. HAYDON 564 PAPE AVE., TORONTO (6)




DANIEL NICOL DUNLOP, O.B.E.

Died 30th May, 1935


Intelligence has come to hand of the death of Daniel Nicol Dunlop at the age of 67. Mr. Dunlop was an old time Theosophist, but withdrew from the English Society in dissatisfaction with the drift towards Leadbeaterism and allied himself with the Anthroposophical movement of Rudolf Steiner. He wrote that he found this in entire harmony with Madame Blavatsky's Secret Doctrine. He first became a member of the Theosophical Society in Dublin and was one of the group associated with George W. Russell, W.B. Yeats, Charles Johnston, Claude Falls Wright and others of the Society which gave its impetus to the Irish Literary Renaissance. He contributed to the Irish Theosophist and his wife, Ella, also wrote with exquisite taste. She sent us some poems a few years ago, before her death, and one of these was printed in our March issue with her pen signature, Freida Dunlop. Mr. Dunlop was associated with Mrs. Tingley as her secretary for some time after her return from the World Crusade, and his intimacy with her methods and practices caused him to change his opinion of her at the time when in 1899 he was at Point Loma. With the present writer he was reported expelled from the Universal Brotherhood at that time, though now it is stated that no such action was taken.

We were certainly reported as "black magicians" as "the faithful" of those days can testify. Mr. Dunlop became associated shortly afterwards with the Westinghouse Company in Pittsburgh, and was subsequently sent to England as European publicity manager of the company. In 1911 he organized' the British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers Association (Beama), edited their journal, and was active in development and research work in the electrical industries. In 1923-24 he was founder and chairman of the World Power Conference, and up till the time of his death he was chairman of the execu-



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tive council. He was also a member of executive councils of leading industrial organizations. He was associated with Charles Lazenby and Mrs. Leisenring in a publishing venture, when a magazine, The Path, and several volumes, were issued from Oakley House, Bloomsbury Street, London. He was the author of three volumes at this time, The Science of Immortality, The Path of Attainment, and British Destiny. He wrote many articles on Theosophy and frequently spoke in London.


Tribute By A Friend

A mutual friend writes that he died on May 30, the day of the Quetta earthquake and was cremated June 3rd. He had been ill but evidently kept himself going for a long time by will-power, as he had a serious operation some two years ago and was away from business for a year. A friend who saw him a few months ago said he was a changed man in every way. Physically he was terribly thin and drawn and unable to eat ordinary food. He was only 66 last December, but seemed very discouraged at the way world affairs were going, and was a disappointed man personally as he never got the reward in honors or cash for his efforts in the business and technical world which be might have expected. Others always seemed to thwart him. The World Power Conference gave him an international reputation amongst engineers, but it was not recognized as important in political circles in this country. He had an idea that technical engineers, etc., could save civilization by combining to use their knowledge for the 'benefit of mankind,' but if not, then there would be a blocking of the avenues of exchange and everything would come to a standstill. I cannot but feel that there was something very, very sad about his life - he seemed to fall between two stools. The astral plane seemed very real to him, especially since linking up with Steiner. He wrote me what he envisaged about the future: sixty to a hundred years hence men would become unselfish. We should not live to see it but would witness the changes from the spiritual world."


In The Business World

The British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers Association contributed the following notice of Mr. Dunlop's life anal work to the press:

For a long time one of the most prominent figures in the British electrical industry, and one whose loss will be deeply felt, Mr. Dunlop was perhaps most widely known as Director of the BEAMA. The original conception of that organization ways his; and after it was firmly established, he was inevitably carried by its success into all the ramifications of the electrical world, and he seized every opportunity afforded by the rising tide of electrical science and industry, of advancing the common cause. Many of his most brilliant conceptions are perhaps not now generally recognized as such and many possibly forgotten. The B.E.A.M.A. itself was the most successful of them, but the early days of the Electrical Research Association, when cooperative effort was almost unknown, saw him in the van of progress, and he should be given (for he never took it) full credit for the creation of the Electrical Development Association, a branch of activity which was particularly attractive to him as a trained publicist. He had the Scot's nous to perceive that "business," always comes first, but that those valuable instruments of electrical progress, education, research, standardization, etc., should be put into motion concurrently, and they received their impulse from him. The committees on which he found himself, either as Chairman (always a willing one) or member, were as the sands of the sea in number, some of them, perhaps, (as is not unusual) rather shifting sand. Much has been said in disparagement of the committee method of arriving at action; but in his case, there were some fundamental principles behind. He believed in the committee method. It went so far with him that he cherished even the



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noble idea of committee meetings as a means of settling international rivalries. A case in point, which clearly shows this, is the World Power-Conference, in which the representatives of about 40 nations sit in committees to exchange ideas, its fruition being made possible only by the liberality of the BEAMA Council who (to their honor be it said) gave him an entirely free hand. Or, take something less remote from immediate business interests - the Fair Trading Policy, an attempt to reconcile very many conflicting views within the home industry. Several such enterprises originated by him, will occur to everyone. Talk, conciliation, reconcilement: those were his methods, and in many cases they brought everyone into final agreement. His patience was endless, his suavity acknowledged by all: he might not ineptly be called "the great conciliator."


Winning Loyalty

And how, after all the talk, were the original conceptions brought drown to bedrock fact in actions and work? The answer seems to be, that he had the priceless gift of choosing the right men and winning their loyalty. His time was always at their disposal at any hour of the day or night, and that without notice. He was rarely known to reprimand anyone for haste or error resulting from over enthusiasm; and nothing that he said left a sting behind. He would have heartily agreed that, as with Nature, there are no punishments, but only consequences. A vivid personality, almost baffling description, he has been described as a Scotch metaphysician; and undoubtedly, his private philosophic studies engendered in him a detachment of mind, enabling him to face delays and opposition with patience and equanimity in the sure belief that he was endeavoring to create something that would meet with approval in the future, even if the present did not receive has proposals with enthusiasm.

Daniel, Nicol Dunlop was born, of Quaker stock, in Ayrshire, in 1868, and made his first entry into the engineering world as an apprentice with the Howe Machine Company of Ardrrossan. The fame of the American Westinghouse Electric Company was then reaching Ardrossan, and it attracted him to the United States. At the age of twenty-six, in their works in Pittsburgh and in the New York offices, he was first introduced to the then latest thing in the production of electrical machinery and in methods of accounting. After three or four years, he was returned to this country as an employee of the Pittsburgh firm, and he saw the Trafford Park works go up. England was then, so far as the electrical industry was concerned, rather the Cinderella among the competing nations, and his job here was the somewhat onerous one of publicity manager for both the English and the other European branches of the great Pittsburgh firm. The A.E.G. was, then at the top of its form and was actually installing a single-phase high-tension system on one of our suburban lines, an enterprise which Westinghouse publicity failed either to avert or modify, Trafford Park not having yet got into its stride.


First Big Chance

The arrival of Newcomb Carlton, the distinguished protege of George Westinghouse, as managing director of the British Westinghouse Company, gave him his first big chance here, for to Dunlop's department Carlton, fresh from the United States, looked for most of his information about the English scene. One of Dunlop's rewards, was his appointment as a sales manager in addition to his management of publicity. On the retirement of Carlton (to join the Western Union Cable Company as its President), after about five years of solid work, Dunlop had himself learned a good deal about the many defects of the British Cinderella, the chief of which was that her home market was entirely laid open to Germany principally by reason, in those pre-tariff days, of the form of home competition known as "cut throat". It looked to everyone an almost

(Concluded on Page 149)






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THE CANADIAN THEOSOPHIST

THE ORGAN OF THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY IN CANADA

Published on the 15th of every month.

[Seal here]


Editor - Albert E. S. Smythe.

Entered at Hamilton General Post Office as Second-class matter.

Subscription, One Dollar a Year.


OFFICERS OF THE T.S. IN CANADA

GENERAL EXECUTIVE

- Dudley W. Barr, 14 Huntley St., Toronto.

- Felix A. Belcher, 250 N. Liagar St., Toronto.

- Maud E. Crafter, 345 Church Street, Toronto.

- William A. Griffiths, 37 Stayner Street, Westmount, P.Q.

- Nath. W. J. Haydon, 584 Pape Avenue, Toronto.

- Frederick B. Housser, 10 Glen Gowan Ave., Toronto.

- Kartar Singh, 1720 Fourth Ave. W., Vancouver, B.C.

GENERAL SECRETARY

- Albert E. S. Smythe, 33 Forest Avenue, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.


*****


OFFICIAL NOTES

Ch. Bonde Jensen, "Dharma", Fredensvang pr Aarhus, Denmark, has been elected General Secretary of the T.S. in Denmark for a period of three years, by 232 votes to an opponent's 40.


It has been pointed out to us, that in E.B.D.'s article "Are We Human?", page 127 last month, "The Quest of the Missing Link" was credited to Harper's Magazine, but that it actually appeared in the Atlantic Monthly for April.

-

Having learned unofficially that Mr. Jinarajadasa was in Canada the Toronto Theosophical Society at its meeting on Wednesday, June 19 extended a cordial invitation to him to visit Toronto. He replied by wire from Logs Angeles on the 26th: "Regret impossible. Must return Seattle after Calgary. Writing."

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Copies of Captain P.G. Bowen's notable article, "The Way towards Discipleship," may be had for Ten Cents each. For free distribution these may be had at twenty for a Dollar; for selling again, fifteen for a Dollar. Mr. James. Morgan Pryse's article, "Memorabilia of H.P. Blavatsky," is to be had at Five Cents each, size to fit a No. 8 envelope. These may be had at twenty for Fifty Cents for free distribution. Apply to this Office.


An inexcusable error by the printer was not detected in the election returns last month when Col. Thomson's name was given as Thomas. His full tittle is Lieut.-Col. E.L. Thomson, D.S.O. He was in the Imperial Army for many years, and served both in the Boer and the Great War He earned his rank and his decoration through active service, and his election would have added distinction to the Toronto Lodge.

-

Montreal Lodge, through its efficient treasurer, Mr. W.A. Griffiths, has once more distinguished itself by being the first, according to its annual constitutional practice, to send a cheque on 2nd. inst. for the full amount of the dues of its members. Some of these having been unable to make up their payments, the Lodge, as in duty bound, has sent on the dues for them. It may be said that this admirable result is achieved by commencing the collection of the annual dues in January, fifty cents a month being collected each month during the year, so that what is owing headquarters is always ready on July 1st.

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We wish to call special attention to the instalment of Thomas Taylor's "Introduction to the Philosophy and Writings of Plato" which we give this months as being one of the most eloquent and lucid presentations of "the vast empire of deity" that has ever been written. The portrait of Taylor which we are glad to have the opportunity of presenting by courtesy of the Director of the National Gallery of Canada at Ottawa, indicates a very different


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[[The table here is too complex too reproduce in this format]]


STANDING OF THE LODGES

Total 1935 [members]

Banff .............................. 3

Calgary .......................... 4

Edmonton ...................... 1

Hamilton ........................ 24

Kitchener ...................... 9

London .......................... 11

Montreal ........................ 33

Regina ............................ 1

St. Thomas .................... 3

Summerland .................. 1

Toronto .......................... 195

Toronto, West End ...... 12

Vancouver ..................... 15

Vancouver, Orpheus ... 20

Victoria .......................... 2

Vulcan ............................ 6

Winnipeg, Blavatsky ..........1

Members at Large ............ 4

Total ................................ 345 [[ total 1934


- 340 ]]


STATEMENT OF FUNDS - YEAR ENDING JUNE 30th, 1935


RECEIPTS

Balance from last year ........... $ 53.17

Lodge Fees and Dues .......... 870.60

Magazine Receipts ........................... 227.20

Donations to Magazine .......... 491.54

Sale of Pamphlets .............7.65

Bank Interest .................. 3.72

--

$1653.88

DISBURSEMENTS

Per Capita to Adyar ............ $ 85.20

Magazine cost: -

Printing .............. $1,221.33

Index & Binding Vols. XIV. and XV. ........... 99.64

Envelopes ..................50.65

Postage ...................... 54.58

--

.................1,426.20

Printing ballots and envelopes for General Executive election, also postage ....................17.83

Membership cards .................. 9.00

Stationery ......................4.05

Stencils ...................... 5.60

Mailing tubes ........................................... 2.12

Dr. Arundale's signature stamp .............. 3.71

Charter forms .............2.92

Petty Cash - Postage, etc. ............ 34.25

Balance carried forward ..................63.00

--

$1,653.88





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sort of man than that depicted in the National Gallery catalogue, a description scarcely worthy of the intelligence of this country. The portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence is a fine example of this great artist's work, and was obtained through the influence of the late Sir Edmund Walker.

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We get a large number of complimentary tributes every year but have been slow to use these tokens of satisfaction. Here is one, however, that sums up the views of a great many. It is from the United States, and we must say that those outside Canada are more hearty in their expressed approval than those within the Dominion, but those who stay with us in Canada are the best supporters - whether silently or not. "I appreciate your Magazine very much," writes this reader. "I am not a member of any Society, but have been a student of the H.P.B.'s `Secret Doctrine' for a number of years, and (to me) the "Canadian Theosophist" has more of the real H.P.B. Theosophical information and tone than any Magazine I have come in contact with."

-

Mr. Belcher reports the progress of his Western tour, as follows: "I am glad to report a very satisfactory four days in Winnipeg; there is a real enthusiasm for a live Secret Doctrine Class. On my return I am to conduct one, which will be formed in the meantime on the lines that have proved so successful. There is sufficient suitable matterial that can, and I think will, carry one and demonstrate the value of the Secret Doctrine in studying Science, Economics, Religion, or Philosophy. I must pay my tribute of appreciation to Mr. and Mrs. Adamson, for their generous and thoughtful hospitality, and to everyone for their hearty cooperation. This is all that I can report now to reach you in time for the next issue of the Canadian Theosophist." This was written June 27, en route to Vulcan.


Senora Esther de Mezerville has been re-elected as General Secretary of the Theosophical Society in Central America and Columba, and writing from San Jose, Costa Rica, sends fraternal salutations to all the Canadian Lodges, fervently wishing that we may all unite in the ideal of service for Humanity, in our common task of spreading, the teachings of Theosophy to every one in the world. Our Spanish brethren are doing splendid work in South America, and we envy them the interest which they have been able to awaken among their, countrymen. Perhaps they have entered more fully into the free air of the Westerns hemisphere than we in the North have been able to do. Our warmest felicitations to Senora Mezerville in heir congenial and inspiring labors.


The title page and Index for volume xv. is now ready and may be had on application by subscribers. Bound volumes may be had for $2 each, and one or two complete sets are still available, $30. the set. "I enjoy this Magazine more every year," writes a subscriber, and those who possess these volumes have a real Theosophical library. This last volume contains a translation of the wonderful work of Sankaracharya; "The Crest Jewel of Wisdom", one of the greatest Scriptures of the world; the completion of Eustace Miles' "Life After Life," a treatise on Reincarnation; the full account of the presidential election, and the current history of the Movement in many various aspects. The numerous articles illustrative of the teachings of Theosophy and the Secret Doctrine are of the utmost value to students, and preserve the nondogmatic spirit of the Blavatsky tradition.


Attention is directed to the Standing of the Lodges, and the Statement of Funds on another page. The membership has been slightly increased this year again, but would have shown a decided increase, except for the loss in the Toronto Lodge where 19 members become inactive through



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non-payment of dues. Effort should be made to retain members in the Society once they join, and the loss year after year of almost as many members as join each year, keeps down the membership roll. The Funds of the Society are its weak point, though the generosity of some friends and members has helped to maintain the official activities.



THE FRATERNIZATION CONVENTION

Arrangements are proceeding for the Convention on August 23-5, and the programme is less of a tentative design than last month. There is still lacking the volunteer promises of addresses and papers that would indicate a vital interest in the proceedings. Such papers of from 1000 to 1500 words, would be welcome for the afternoon meetings.

The local Toronto committees, are busy arranging for various aspects of the Convention. Reception, Rooming and Lodgings, City Tour, Literature, etc. There will be an informal reception on Friday after the afternoon session, a luncheon on Saturday noon, and a more formal reception on Sunday between the afternoon and evening meetings. Sunday morning a tour of the city is projected. The Committee on Resolutions is always an important body, and it is suggested that any who are unable to attend might engage themselves and their Lodges in preparing resolutions to be submitted to this Committee.

Mr. Jinarajadasa writes that he is unable to attend as his engagements carry him away from America. Dr. Stokes of Washington, will be unable to attend but promises to send a paper. Mr. Norman Pearson of Detroit pleads the engagement of the Convention of the American Theosophical Society as overlapping the date of the Toronto one, but admits that he "is doubtful of the wisdom of holding such conventions," though he "Sincerely hopes that you will have a successful and fruitful gathering." It had been thought that Detroit might be the seat of the 1936 convention, but this seems to preclude the possibility. Will it be Cleveland or Buffalo next year? Or Where? The three main addresses for the evening meetings are on Theosophy and Economics by Mr. Fred B. Housser; one by Dr. Alvin B. Kuhn, and one by Mr. G. Rupert Lesch on Theosophy and the Study of Comparative Religion. The afternoon addresses will be shorter and more diversified. It is hoped that discussion and the answering of questions will render the meetings of direct interest.

Some members do not appear to have read the Magazine and send in questions that have been fully answered, but we will repeat what has already been printed for the information of strangers. This Convention is a joint effort of all the Theosophical bodies interested to show that their profession of Brotherhood and of "fraternal good will and kindly feeling toward all students of Theosophy and members of Theosophical Societies wherever and however situated," is not merely a sham and pretense. The Toronto Theosophical Society invited the Convention to use its hall at 52 Isabella Street, which is conveniently situated and seats 500. It is possible that a loud speaker will be installed for the occasion so that the audience will have no difficulty about hearing.

The dates of August 23-5 were adopted on account of the great Canadian National Exhibition which is held annually and is the greatest affair of the kind in the world, beginning at this time so that the excursion rates are available for the weeks of the Fair on the trains, and those attending the Convention may take advantage of them.

It has been suggested that as far as possible the first day be devoted to Science, the Second to Philosophy, and the third to Religion, with the afternoons to be more technically Theosophical, and the evenings specially for the public, though the public will be heartily welcome to all meetings.

The Convention is a voluntary one and



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depends on support for contributions from those attending. A collection will be taken up at each session, and visitors will adapt themselves ito the demands of the occasion according to their circumstances.

Any further information may be had from the General Secretary, or from the Convention Committee, 52 Isabella Street, Toronto.

For postal convenience it may be stated that letters in or to Canada require a three-cent stamp; postcards in or to Canada a two-cent stamp. British postage is Three-halfpence for letters and a penny (two cents) for cards.

The following is the programme as far as arranged:


TENTATIVE PROGRAMME


FRIDAY

- 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., Registration and information for visitors.

- 2 p.m. Calling to Order of Convention by Temporary Chairman, Mr. J. Emory Clapp; Boston.

Election of Permanent Chairman.

Chairman's Address.

Election of Committees.

Address and Papers

Mrs. Gertrude Knapp: Some Facts in Botany Viewed Theosophically.

Mr. W. F. Sutherland

Discussion.

Collection.

- 5-6 p.m. Informal Reception.

- 8 p.m. Address by Mr. F. B. Housser - Theosophy and Economics.

Questions. Collection.


SATURDAY

- 1 p.m. Luncheon.

- 3 p.m. Address by Mr. Cecil Williams - Fraternization.

Discussion.

Collection.

- 8 p.m. Address by Dr. Alvin B. Kuhn -

Questions.

Collection.


SUNDAY

- a.m. Tour of the City.

- 2 p.m. Address by Mr. Robert. Hughes - Magic, the Science of Life.

Mr. F. C. Bingham - Buddhism.

Discussion.

Collection.

- 4 p.m. Report of Committee on Resolutions.

Selection of Next Meeting Place.

Close of Official Business

- 5 p.m. Reception to Visiting Delegates and Members.

7- .15 p.m. Mr. G. Rupert Lesch - Theosophy and the Study of Comparative Religions.




THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE

Only three local members were able to attend the Executive meeting held on Sunday afternoon, 7th inst. Mr. Housser is in England, and Mr. Belcher is in the West. Messrs. Griffiths, Wilks and Kartar Singh live at too great a distance to attend. They are kept informed of all that is transacted at the meetings, and their suggestions and comments are welcomed. Only routine business was done on the 7th. Mr. Housser's absence required a new authority for the signing of cheques. Under the Constitution the General Secretary is also Treasurer, but as a matter of Principle and to set a precedent, Mr. Smythe asked for the appointment of an acting Treasurer who would sign the cheques along with him. Thus a check is kept on the issue of money from the Society's Funds. It was agreed that Miss Crafter should sign cheques along with the General Secretary, for the present, and the Bank was so notified under the Signatures of the General Secretary and Mr. Haydon. Mr. Belcher was re-appointed Secretary for the Executive, Mr. Haydon keeping the minutes in the meantime. Mr. Smythe was continued as Editor of The Canadian Theosophist.

The Theosophical Year Book for England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales was submitted for inspection, particularly the "Course of Study in Theosophy" in which such fraudulent books as "The Lives of Alcyone", "Man: Whence, How and Whither?" and other Leadbeaterian pro-


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ductions are included and form the greater part of the list. If these were put forth as speculative and fictional writings there could be no objection, but as they are in contradiction of the teachings of the Founders of the Movement as shown in Isis Unveiled, The Secret Doctrine and The Mahatma Letters, it constitutes a fraud upon the public to present them as "various aspects of Theosophy." Four volumes by A.E. Powell on the Etheric Double, the Astral Body, The Mental Body and the Causal Body, are said to have been repudiated by the writer on further study, but with other similar literature they are presented as "Straight Theosophy." This is not a question of heterodoxy nor of orthodoxy, but of whether a book is good or bad. When a book is untrue it is bad and there is no question of orthodoxy to be raised.




DANIEL NICOL DUNLOP, O.B.E.

Died 30th May, 1935

(Concluded from Page 143.)


incurable position; but Dunlop saw that combination might save it. Convinced that the thing could be done, he found his vehicle in the little trade association then known as the National Electrical Manufacturers' Association. Some intensive publicity and a good deal of quiet personal persuasiveness, of which he was past master, won him support from many of the more sober-minded firms who had hither-to held aloof. In the year 1911, the BEAMA was launched with Dunlop as Director and Secretary. The rest of his story is to be found not only in what everyone in the electrical world knows about the BEMA, but in the council records of many other bodies, a few of which may be mentioned: The I.E.E., the F.B.I., the B.S.I. the E.R.A., the E.D.A., the Fair Trading Council (chairman), the World Power Conference (chairman of its International Executive Council), the Electric Fittings Statutory Committee (chairman), and many other bodies.

For his work on behalf of the industry, Dunlop received the Order of British Empire. He married Miss Eleanor Fitzpartrick, who predeceased him, and he leaves a son, Mr. R.O. Dunlop, the distinguished artist, and two, daughters. The funeral, which was largely attended, took place at Golder's Green Crematorium on the 3rd instant.

A Correspondent of the London Times among other things, said: Dunlop possessed a personality of remarkable charm. In addition he was blessed with a voice which appeared to be raised scarcely above the level of ordinary conversation, yet every syllable which he spoke could be heard at the opposite end of a hall as large as the Session Chamber of the Houses of Parliament in Copenhagen. Latterly he emphasized again and again the special debt which the engineer owed to society as the creator of technological employment. The manner in which he spoke created an atmosphere of practical idealism, most favorable for the carrying on of the work of the Conference.

His close colleagues will probably remember Dunlop best as the ideal chairman of the British National Committee and of the International Executive Council of the World Power Conference, posts which be held from their formation until his death. In particular, as chairman of the International Executive Council, he showed something not short of genius in presiding over the annual deliberations of the representatives of often more than a score of different countries, with tact and patience, and humor, so that the little group of "regulars" became in the course of years an international family party, with a real unity of purpose which not even recent political passions were able to destroy. We can ill afford to lose Dunlop's influence at the present time. The best tribute to his memory will be to assure the permanence and continued development on the lines which he laid down of his "child", as Dunlop's colleagues often called the World Power Conference.




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CORRESPONDENCE


A SILENT REVOLUTION

Editor The Canadian Theosophist:


- In the "Canadian Theosophist" of May 15th, appears an article entitled, "A Silent Revolution". As no name is attached, I am addressing myself to the sponsors of the magazine, although I fully realize that they are in no way responsible for the opinions of their contributors.

In the article I refer to, quotations are given from "The Times" (London, I presume) which, according to the author of this article, "are such as every Theosophist would say Amen to." However, as a student of Theosophy for twenty years, I, and probably many others could not, and would not, endorse the sentiments expressed, and for the following reasons:

"The Times" believes that the age into which we are now entering will be a synthesis of the two preceding ages - the feudal and the capitalistic - or, in other words, Fascism. "The task before us now", says "The Times", "is to ensure once more the supremacy of ethics over economics, while preserving all the immense advantages won by the capitalist system." Now it is obvious to the meanest intellect that these "immense advantages" as the "Times" chooses to term them, are available only to the wealthy or well-to-do classes or those who still have the means to acquire them. "Immense advantages" is a vague term, which can include anything from the latest invention in chemical poison gas, to the most recently concocted serum, and everything from industrial machinery to submarines, electric chairs, and face-lifting. In the language of capitalism all these are immense advantages, for they are boosted every dray in the capitalist press, but what Theosophist would wish to preserve them? These are not to be surrendered, according to "The Times", but merely controlled, "to ensure the supremacy of ethics over economics" (?) and it is this controlled capitalism (still retaining all the above mentioned advantages) which is Fascism, pure and simple, to which Theosophists are invited to say Amen.

A moment's thought would have shown the writer of this article that mouthpieces of capitalism, such as "The Times" can only advocate fascism as the next step in the struggle to maintain control of industry, but their sentiments are cleverly camouflaged in order to deceive those readers who are not well grounded in economics into thinking they are advocating some form of socialism which will benefit society as a whole. As a matter of fact that is what they are advocating, for society (or humanity) as a whole must include the International Bankers, Munitions Makers, and all exploiters of the working class. So beware of such slogans, as "equality for all," - the greatest deception of the present crisis.

The same writer informs us that Major C.H. Douglas, the social creditor, predicted recently that "unless the money power of the world can be wrested peacefully from the hands it has been in for the past two hundred years, the monopoly it represents will destroy society by war."

In the dictionary I find to "wrest" interpreted "to force as by torture". It is possible that Major Douglas has been quoted incorrectly - otherwise he has presented us with a picture of capitalism in its worst form, bristling with machine guns, gas bombs, destroyers, etc., surrendering peacefully on the word "Boo" uttered in commanding tones by an unarmed pacifist. This man-eating monster will submit through some form of tail twisting - peacefully forced as by torture - to the loss not only of its liberty, but to all claims to moneys, place and power! In short, to its only means of existence.

Another anonymous writer in his article "God Save the King" lauds Mr. George Lansbury for his tribute to King George: "Those, who like myself, are theoretically Republican, join heartily and completely with the most ardent Tories in congratulations to the King and Queen" Suppose we were to transpose the message and



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write: "Those, who like myself, are theoretically Theosophical, join heartily and completely with the most ardent Catholics in congratulations to the Pope." Does that sound just right to students of Theosophy?

The further remarks of Mr. Lansbury show that he is simply using the good will and affection of the general public towards the King and Queen as man and woman as an excuse to prolong the iniquities of the present economic system - as long as the King reigns, he will dlo nothing to upset existing conditions.

It is only during the last two or three years, that Theosophists have turned their attention to economic questions and have endeavored to answer them in print in their own magazines. It is only natural that they should be somewhat confused at the outset, but they should refrain as much as possible from making confusion worse confounded as in the present instance, by taking statements obviously deceptive in character at their face value, and assuming that all Theosophists will do likewise. We are all learners, and economics hold an important place in our studies today, let us give them all the attention possible in order to enlighten others rather than further confuse them.

- E. K. Middleton.

2873 Inlet. Avenue,

Gorge Road, Victoria, B.C.


BROTHERHOOD AND FRATERNIZATION

Editor, The Canadian Theosophist: - When Mr. P.G. Bowen says brotherhood should begin at home he is right, but he errs when he implies that there it should stop. How can we attain universal brotherhood if we cannot fraternize with lovers of the Masters? Surely the attempt to thus practice a little brotherhood cannot damn our immortal souls!

This "wandering gleam through the clouds", is it then to be despised? Does the radiance of spiritual love shine so splendidly upon us that we need no reflection of it from other souls?

Fraternization, says my friendly critic, is only a step towards universal brotherhood. Who said it was more? Yet, as says the Chinese proverb, the journey of a thousand miles begins with a step.

What if the step should be backward, he wonders. Indeed, we are none so perfect that we cannot slip! But since when has "to dare" been stricken from the tenets of occultism?

Are there not those in the Theosophical Movement who can say with me that through fraternization they have come to know noble souls in other societies? To feel the touch of fellowship across the frontiers of membership, is not that worth while?

Is it nothing that people might say, in sincerity, "How these Theosophists love one another!" Ah, if they could only say that the world would be at our feet, and the Golden Age within our beck. Then the Masters would mingle with men, as they did of old.

H.P.B. urged that each should work in his own way and force not his ideas upon another, but in the message in which she counseled this, she proclaimed in capital letters (and I am sure she would have liked to use modern newspaper streamer head line type for the purpose): "UNION IS STRENGTH."

- Cecil Williams,.

49 East 7th St., Hamilton.




Books by Wm. Kingsland


The Mystic Quest.

The Esoteric Basis of Christianity.

Scientific Idealism.

The Physics of the Secret Doctrine.

Our Infinite Life.

Rational Mysticism.

An Anthology of Mysticism.

The Real H. P. Blavatsky.

Christos: The Religion of the Future.

The Art of Life.

The Great Pyramid.


May be had from JOHN M. WATKINS, 21 Cecil Court, Charing Cross Road, London, W. C. 2, England.




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THEOSOPHY AND THE MODERN WORLD

Conducted by F. B. Housser


THE NEW HUMANISM

A political concept which is being forced upon our attention with increasing insistence, and in relation to which we soon shall have to take a stand one way or the other, is discussed rather vividly in an article headed "Humanism and Communism", by Julien Benda, translated from the Nouvelles Litteraires of Paris, and published in the June number of "The Living Age".

The article opens: "Those who like to know their own minds clearly will always be grateful to an intelligent loyal adversary who defends the essential points of his position and thus allows them to understand their own point of view in its essential and irreducible elements. It is precisely this pleasure that was granted me the other day at the Union for Truth where Paul Nizan, the brilliant author of Chiens de garde, outlined the principles Communist humanism."


Communist Humanism

"Communist humanism, he explained, is essentially a totalitarian humanism, which plans to raise the human being in his entirety to a higher level. Whereas the ancient humanism


- or let us simply say the Greek and Roman variety - honored the intellectual and moral sphere of man, which it isolated from the material sphere, Communist humanism abolishes this distinction, this separation of man from himself, this alienation of an entire part of man's being. Communist humanism pretends to reconcile spirit and matter, mind and nature, the intellectual worker and the manual worker, and to glorify the human being in the wholeness of his activity. Furthermore, whereas ancient humanism urged man to venerate human beings evolved from the purely intellectual sphere and typified by justice, the new humanism cannot be too scornful of this slavery to abstractions and declares that the subservience of man to his divine half is the measure of his decline and maintains that human morality should be based on the relationship of man's entire being to the outside world."


The Classical Contrast

M. Benda proceeds to disagree most heartily with this attitude; he says: "In listening to this clear definition of the new gospel, I felt as I never did before how completely my conception of humanism, which I share, I think, with all those who remain faithful to classical culture, is opposed to M. Nizan's; how profoundly I believe in this opposition of the material and the spiritual life, in this dualism and this hierarchy; how little I relish the reconciliation of the intellectual worker and the manual worker; how much my conception of the greatness of man is dependent upon 'his obedience to what is divine in him; how little I like those men who drink life through every pore, the happy, healthy faces of Marx and Jaures, and how much I cherish those emaciated beings, whose faces burned dry by the pure life of the spirit, deem to ignore that they have bodies -Dante, Erasmus" Fenelon, and Leo XIII."

"I found in Communist humanism everything that I despise in these `new' philosophies which want us to philosophize `with our entire being' whereas I have been taught that one should philosophize with one's mind." He maintains that the production of truly creative works must of necessity involve "a complete break on the part of their authors with all manual activity. And it is precisely this (isolated) intellectualism and precisely this break that I honor. It is this alone, that my system of values calls culture."

"In so far as the economic transformation that the Communist humanism demands is concerned, I am ready to answer


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all its demands. I am willing to do manual labor three hours a day if I am allowed to preserve my belief in the autonomy of the intellectual life."

"Finally, the new humanism makes this admission: man will belong entirely to society, which will not be content to impose civic duties upon him but will attempt to form his mind and to govern it. I felt how much my conception of humanism implied the liberty to escape from society, even to act against it, and to question the established order." M. Benda points out how at variance is his stand is that taken not only by Communist humanism but also by Nazi humanism and the humanism of Royalism as exemplified by the proponents of the restoration of the Monarchy in France, and concludes: "Classical humanism may well gird its loins. Today almost the entire world is against it."


The Middle Path

Students of Theosophy will recognize many incongruities in the statement of both sides of this case. While they will not share the Communist scorn of the "slavery to abstractions" nor agree that "the subservience of man to his divine half is the measure of his decline," since after all abstractions are the only realities, and in the "divine half" of man lies his only hope of final liberation; they will endorse an effort "to raise the human being in his entirety to a higher level." Whether the majority of souls in incarnation at any given time are capable of any great immediate advance is another question, but undoubtedly it is the duty of those who have made progress to see to it that an environment is provided for their "younger Brothers" in which they will have every opportunity to progress in so far as their own capabilities and efforts will permit.

They will also endorse M. Benda's plea for intellectual freedom, but with reservations, for they understand something of the duality of Manas, the thinking principle, the link in man between his `divine half' and his animal nature. "Great intellect and too much knowledge are two-edged weapons in life, and instruments for evil as well as for good. When combined with selfishness they will make of the whole of humanity a footstool for the elevation of him who possesses them, and a means for the attainment of his objects; while, applied to altruistic humanitarian purposes, they may become the means of salvation to many." (Secret Doctrine, Vol. 2, page, 173).

On the other hand, M. Benda will be seen to have erred in his glorification of asceticism, and his insistence on the necessity for a complete break between the intellectual and the physical functions. Rather should the mind be the instrument for the sublimation of the desires and the gradual elevation of the physical nature.


The Individual and Society

Not quite "the entire world" has yet lined up on the side of this "new humanism." Possibly it will be the destiny of the Anglo-Saxon nations, whose peoples still retain some political stability to evolve a social order in which the present ruthless economic exploitation of the weak by the strong will be eliminated, and at the same time the deadening intellectual slavery of the totalitarian societies so far developed will be avoided and the individual given scope for growth and the unfolding of his powers.

Perhaps no truer archetype for such a social order could be found than that set out in the ancient "Laws of Manu", which describe a state built for the individual and designed to provide, him at each stage of his unfoldment with opportunities for further development of every angle of his nature.

- E. B. D.


WITHOUT DISTINCTION OF COLOUR

That one of the most difficult of all racial problems, namely that of the mingling of the white and negro races in the United States, is not an insoluble one is indicated in a very interesting article en-



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titled "New Straws in the Southern Wind" by Floyd Tillery in the June issue of they Modern Thinker. Mr. Tillery lives in Alabama and through his personal experience has observed tendencies which lead him too the general conclusion that "the South is beginning (almost imperceptibly, it is true but surely nevertheless) to accept the Negro on an equal social footing . . . . . . The Negro's persistent efforts at self-realization and self-determination, are beginning to make distinct, and ineradicable impressions upon the social map of Dixie . . . . .Among the many fine qualities in the make-up of the Anglo-Saxon, there is any element within him which just naturally admires a fighter, a struggler, a winner. And this very spirit operating freely today and expressing itself very positively in many of the social attitudes of the 20th Century Southerner - Second Quarter - is helping to bring about the slow but gradual disintegration and dissolution of the Old Order."


Breaking Barriers

The first "straw" which the author mentions is the "passing" of groups of Negroes through intermarriage with white persons. He gives an example from his own community where after four generations of mixed marriages the younger members of the latest generation "attend the same white Sunday school, worship the same white Methodist God in the same white Methodist Church, and sit side-by-courting-side with the whitest of the white during the prayer meeting, revival services and other public gatherings." They will eventually attend the schools for secondary education provided for white children.

The Tuskegee Institute has of course done a tremendous service in elevating the status of the Negro, and it has also had a great though indirect influence on the relationships of whites and Negroes, particularly through the younger generations of both races." In my high school classes there are numbers of cottonmill boys and girls who say quite openly that they regard the Negro as every whit as good as any person living and potentially equal - intellectually, morally and socially - to the Anglo-Saxon. One young girl said just yesterday 'I believe God thinks just as much of a Negro as He does of a white man. Why shouldn't we then?"

Some of the other instances which point to a changing attitude are these: "The Negro women who work for the white-folks no longer `go round to the back doah', but enter directly through the living room; no longer eat off the side table in the kitchen, but off the white tablecloth in the dining-room; no longer remain humbly standing in the presence of the mistress, of the home, but rest themselves in the nearest easy chair. White women in the South, when ill, call in `coloured' doctors. Negro masseurs attend Anglo-Saxon ladies. Negro students and white students, in Deep Dixie, discuss music, art, and literature together and exchange poems and essays. Black men and white men, right here in Alabama, exchange gifts and photographs and visit with each other in their own 'dens' and quarters. Yea, verily, the, old, order changeth, yielding place to the new."

Mr. Tillery discussed these things with a leading citizen in his own town, a typical Southerner of the `old' school, who said, "I believe the time is coming and it seems fast on its way when one shall have only one race in the South. I deplore the situation as much as any true Southerner possibly could - indeed, I thank God that it will all happen after I am dead and gone; but I cannot help reading the handwriting on the wall, an excerpt of which you have been quoting, in relating this outstanding and seemingly successful case of wholesale amalgamation."


Formation Of A New Race?

The United States - has often been described as the melting pot of the races. Her empty lands attracted millions of emigrants, chiefly from Europe, Anglo Saxons, Celtic, Slavs, Teutonic and Latins, but also from Asia and Central and South America. Those who came on these immigrations, while perhaps not always the



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`fittest' in the Darwinian sense, did possess courage enterprise and a desire for freedom and self determinism.

But the Negro came as a slave. They were captured in slave raids from the jungles of Africa and for generations worked as slaves for their white masters. They were considered as beasts of burden; could be beaten, killed and sold, as chattels; Negro women were valued as breeders of slave children. But all the horrors of the slave days seemed to degrade the whites more than the Negroes. The Negroe was sinned against, but the character of the sinner was blackened by the sin. Many white persons despise and hate the Negro; do we ever hear of the Negro as a race hating and despising the whites? The long Karma of the slave raids and the slave days has yet to be worked out and it is fortunate for both races that the genius of the Negro does not run to unquenchable hatreds, revenge and life-long feuds.

H.P. Blavatsky speaks of the formation of a new race in the United States; "Pure Anglo-Saxon hardly three hundred years ago, the Americans of the United States have already become a nation apart, and owing to a strong admixture of various nationalities and inter-marriage almost, a race sui generis, not only mentally but also physically... They are in short, the germs of the sixth sub-race, in all its new characteristics." S.D., II., 463-464. What new characteristic will a strong admixture of Negro blood bring to that new race?

- D. W. B.


MIND SANS BRAIN

The American Psychiatric Association is having a rare old time at Washington, D.C. this year. What with the concept of some sort of telepathic bonds of sympathy linking all human beings together, the franker recognition of inadequacy in old psychological theories, new ideas of diet, and of the influence of mind over matter the Psychiatries are coming close indeed to some Theosophical notions of the constitution of man.

Perhaps the most interesting report from the Convention concerns removal of a large portion of a woman's brain without ill effect to her, even rather to her advantage.


Case History

The newspaper report reads as follows:

Washington, May 15. - A woman whose mind was improved by an operation that removed nearly the entire "thinking" portion of her brain was described to the American Psychiatric Association today.

The report reads like a fairy tale, as her personality was also lifted to better levels.

The operation removed the entire right prefrontal lobe and most of the left lobe. These lobes are the gray matter credited with being the seat of reason, logic and intelligence.

The report was made by Spafford Ackerly, M.D., associate professor of psychiatry of the University of Louisville school of medicine. The operation was done two years ago, he said, by Glen Spurling, professor of neuro-surgery at the same school.

The woman is an Austro-Hungarian, is married and was 35 when a tumor necessitated removal of so much of her brain. For the first year afterward she was extraordinarily gay and happy, almost childishly so. With the second year came the mature changes now reported. Intelligence tests rate her as well as the average adult.

Her power of concentration has improved over anything previously shown by her. Her memory of immediate events is good and for events long past is "remarkable." She reads English much better than before the operation. She says she can do more work without fatigue.

Her temper is better. She worries less than formerly. Her increased concentration, the report states, causes her to insist in talking to a finish what she starts to say despite efforts to change the subject. She never hesitates about executing a decision, but her decisions are never vicious or antisocial. She prefers quantity in accomplishment rather than quality.

Her religious advisers are delighted



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with her piety, but her husband says she has feelings of superiority.

Several explanations are suggested. One is the fact already observed in animals that the brain has spare parts.

Another explanation is that the very small portion of prefrontal lobe left may be functioning better than did the whole thinking mechanism when intact.


Comment

For the sake of historical accuracy and to preserve the record for future use the entire report has been quoted. Similar cases have been observed before and some of them were summarized in a previous issue of The Canadian Theosophist. (See February, 1934 issue). The present case record is valuable in that it keeps the subject alive and also furnishes readily verifiable data for argument. In the present instance we can more or less definitely ascertain how much of the brain was removed and thus gauge the seriousness of the resulting deficiency.


Newspaper Exaggeration

Apparently the extent of the operation has been exaggerated in the newspaper reports. The physiologist divides the brain into four parts, which in the human embryo, and in lower orders of vertebrae look like knots on the spinal cord. They are the hind-brain, the midbrain, the inter-brain and the fore-brain. The hind and mid-brains, those nearest the spinal cord, have much to do with the automatic functioning of the body as a piece of machinery and injury to them has grave results. The inter-brain has comparatively little nervous tissue associated with, it forms the third ventricle or major cavity within the brain (these cavities of which there are four, communicate freely with each other and with the canal in the spinal cord, along which, according to some theories, kundalini or the Serpent force travels in initiation). The top and bottom of this inter-brain or third ventricle give rise respectively to the pineal and pituitary glands, the latter being formed by an outgrowth from the brain and an inward growth of the tissue lining the nasal cavity. These glands are of interest to the Theosophist.

The fore-brain or Cerebrum is the portion we are now interested in. It in man has grown to such an extent as to dwarf they other parts by comparison; its enlargement has necessitated the large brain cavity which differentiates us from the other animals, it has given to us our high foreheads.

The frontal lobes of this cerebrum, or fore-brain comprise possibly something less than 25 per cent. of the whole cerebrum, so the patient did not lose quite so much of her gray and white matter as might be supposed.


Does The Brain Think?

We are not endeavoring to minimize the importance of this case. The area removed has long been held to be the seat of reason. The portion immediately behind and across the top of the head is known to contain the centres controlling the voluntary movement of the limbs, tongue, eyes, etc. The frontal area itself is supposed to be that part of the brain wherein the association of ideas, in which memory plays a large part, is carried on. So according to the physiologists' notion of things, our patient should legitimately have full powers of locomotion, hearing, speech and vision but should have little or no memory and should be unable to think rationally. Yet, the newspaper report says her memory was good, she is able to read English much better than before the operation, and her behavior is somewhat more social than formerly. The newspaper also says that her religious piety has increased although that this is due to increased mental powers may be doubted.

All in all it seems clear that the theory that thinking, inheres in the gray matter of the brain must be discarded. Even the theory that, to quote the report, "the very small portion of the prefrontal lobe left may be functioning better than did the whole thinking mechanism when intact", must likewise he discarded, for if memor-



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ies, on which thinking largely depends, resided in certain brain cells, their removal must necessarily have left a deficiency.

No, the only theory which fits the case is the Theosophical one of several vehicles or bodies. For, on this basis the mind-body would still be left intact, and the residual portion of the brain would still be adequate to form the connecting link between the mind or manasic vehicle and the physical.

- W. F. S.


WAR AND ECONOMICS

The Anglo-German naval talks in London, Japan holding a pistol to the head of China, Mussolini doing the same to Abyssinia, increased armament appropriations in the United States while millions are pennyless, talk of a naval pact among the countries of the British Empire, what do they all signify? Is human nature incurably bad and stupid or is it merely trapped? What lies behind the feverish race in armaments?

Most people know or believe that the financial and economic system under which most of the west lives, is an important factor in making wars, few realize how important.

If people would spend as much time and thought on getting an intelligent grasp of how our economic system works as they do on how to play a good game of chess or bridge, they would then see clearly why war is inevitable under our present economic system.

Unemployment and the fight for foreign markets are at least as great a cause of driving nations into war as the personal lust for power of dictators like Mussolini or Hitler.

Even in the old days before the present economic system was operating, most wars were fought for territory or thrones, which would enrich impoverished conquerors and their respective countries.

Napoleon arose out of the economic impasse which France had reached under revolutionary financing.

It was Napoleon who said "War is Prussia's largest and most profitable industry".

It is possibly the largest and most profitable industry in the world today.


Some Known Facts

The economic causes, of war are no longer open to any doubt. Because it is profitable and because there is a huge vested interest in the world which profits from it, there is a nucleus of the race which uses its power, consciously or unconsciously, for the promotion of war.

In the recent enquiry into armaments and war profits conducted: by the United States Senate at Washington it was shown that the four big meat packing companies - Armour, Swift, Morris and Cudahy made $121 millions in excess profits over prewar years during the war period from 1915 to 1917.

Copper mining companies, like Kennecoat, Calumet, Hecla and Utah Copper, were found to have made profits in 1917 ranging from 70 to 800 per cent.

During the Coolidge administration, it was learned that the government's secret designs for certain types of guns were released to armament manufacturers in order to increase United Status foreign trade.

In China the smuggling of arms is a large and profitable business; sometimes engaged in by ambassadors of European countries.

These are now established facts which cannot be refuted.

In London this month British and German naval experts, and government representatives discussed larger navies.

"In the breast of millions of English men and women", says the New English Weekly "the Anglo-German naval talks cannot help but revive unspeakable emotions. . . The sinking of the German navy (in the last war) cost the lives of a million of the fairest British youth. . . It is represented by an entire industry of cripples fashioning artificial poppies to be sold on the streets in celebration of an anniversary



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of the day on which the world became safe for democracy."

On the east coast of England a real estate firm is said to be building and actually selling bomb and poison-gas proof bungalows and probably getting rich on it.


No Use Blaming Persons

These are the obvious sort of things that appeal to the emotions and which the masses understand you to mean when you say that under our present economic system war is inevitable.

What they do not understand is that no particular person or persons are to blame. It is the nature of the system itself which can be altered if enough people are determined it shall be.


War and Economics

Theosophists cannot sit apart sublimely indifferent to these things. Whatever the ultimate reason for our lives on earth, it would seem at present that we are here to learn the business of living together in all sorts of conditions and with all sorts of people. Humanity is made up of all types and the armament-maker, the dictator, the criminal, the profiteer all belong to the host of human egos.


Individual Responsibility

Is selfishness, which is the root of greed and brutality, the fault of the individual alone who suffers from it? Have we never, for example, seen the character of a child grow self-centred and' egotistical because of the indifferences and laziness of its parents who shirk their responsibility of discipline and guidance? To what extent, then, has racial indifference and laziness contributed to the development of unsocial persons? Perhaps far greater than is apparent on the surface. Carlyle wrote: "The end of man is an action and not a thought, though it were the noblest." and H.P. Blavatsky commenting on this in the Key to Theosophy said "The profession of a truth is not yet the enactment of it: and the more beautiful and grand it sounds, the more loudly virtue or duty is talked about instead of being acted upon, the more forcibly it will always remind one of the Dead Sea fruit. Cant is the most loathsome of all vices."

Action based upon clear-sighted, constructive thinking which does not shirk the facts and does not lose the ideal of human progress is required of Theosophists. "Progress can be attained, and only attained by the development of the nobler qualities. Now true evolution teaches us that by altering the surroundings of the organism we can alter and improve the organism; and in the strictest sense this is true with regard to man. Every Theosophist, therefore, is bound to do his utmost to help on by all means in his power every wise and well considered social effort which has for its object the amelioration of the condition of the poor." Key to Theosophy, page, 198.

War is the most potent cause of poverty and the inevitability of war under our present social and economic system is a problem to which Theosophists cannot remain indifferent.

- F. B. H.


THE VIRGIN BIRTH

Considered biologically and in the light of critical study of Christian documents, the doctrine of the Virgin Birth is probably the most difficult of acceptance in the Church today.

Until recent years this doctrine was accepted by the majority with unquestioning belief, and was regarded as an essential part of the Christian faith. It is becoming, however, increasingly evident that Protestant clergyman are laying less stress upon the Immaculate Conception; a few venture to call it "symbolic", but generally they seem to prefer to pass it by in silence.

Many members who have not definitely renounced the story are aware that it is retained more as a piece of folklore rather than as a doctrine to be intellectually grasped and defended. This of course does not apply to the Church of Rome, which apparently possesses a power to defend its dogma against the two solvents - Science and Education.


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An Interpolation?

A condensed article from "The Aryan Path", called "Virgin Births", appears in the February issue of the "Magazine Digest". The author, Sir A.G. Carew, points out that of the four Gospels, two make no mention of the miraculous birth of Jesus


- Mark by common consent is considered the most primitive, and the absence in it of the episode suggests a later invention. Even in Matthew and Luke, which contain the story, there is clear evidence that it is an interpolation.

Genealogies purporting to establish the decent of Jesus from the Jewish King David, appear in both the Gospels of Matthew and Luke - Yet if Jesus was not the son of Joseph, from whom the descent of David was traced, the genealogies lose their raison d'etre. The Apostle Paul expressly describes Jesus as "born of the seed of David according to the flesh", words which certainly imply human paternity. Descent could not have been traced through Mary, as she belonged to another race.


Comparative Study

The above arguments, unfortunately, have been used by some who have thereby accomplished nothing but the implantation of doubt and skepticism in the minds of men. - Granted that the episode was a later addition - there must have been some reason for the interpolation. It is not the object of Theosophical students to destroy a religion's doctrines; rather, they endeavor to reveal its true significance.

Through the study of comparative Religion, the Virgin Birth story is found to be woven about practically every great Teacher. Lord Buddha, Visvamitra, Raja Rasalu, Gugu-Pir, Laotse and Fo-Hi were credited with an Immaculate Conception. Budanstar in the Turkisih legend and the Greek Perseus were thus conceived; so also were Han Ki, and Condom in Siam. On the American continent, the Sioux Indian Hero was Virgin born, as was the Ancestor worshiped by the African Hottentots. - This small portion of the list is

sufficient to prove that the Gospel Story is anything but unique.


A Metaphysical Concept

The idea of the Virgin Mothor was originally a universal one - and a purely metaphysical concept. The Ancients recognized in Space, before its periodical cosmic activity, the Mother of all manifestation. Fertility and productiveness inhered in the Immaculate Virgin, the ever-youthful Nature, who generated and brought forth her son - The Universe. The drama was also enacted on other planes. Our Earth was thought of too as the Virgin, her son - Humanity as a totality, past, present and future. Above - the son was the Whole Universe; below - he was Mankind. Likewise each successive Personality, the Ancients thought, is son of Virgin Mother; the latter the Immaculate Primordial Root of being.

In conclusion the words of H.P. Blavatsky are quoted, "How much more grandiose, philosophical and poetical - for whoever is able to understand and appreciate it - is the real distinction made between the Immaculate Virgin of the ancient pagans and the modern Papal conception. With the former, the ever-youthful Mother Nature, the antitype of her prototypes, the Sun and Moon, generates and brings forth her 'mind-born' Son, the Universe: . .. . With the Christians, the "First-born" (premogenitus) is indeed generated, i.e. begotten (genitus, non factus) and positively conceived and brought forth; `Virgo pariet,' explains, the, Latin Church. Thus does that Church drag drown the noble spiritual ideal of the Virgin Mary to the earth, and making her `of the earth earthy' degrades the ideal she portrays to the lowest of the anthropomorphic Goddesses of the rabble." S.D. I, page 429.

- R. S.




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AN AUTHENTIC "MEMORY"

The following case of a remembered past life is taken from a letter to the Toronto Star Weekly from its correspondent in England, Mr. M.H. Halton, who writes, . . . "We were spending the night in the Old Hall of Monkton Priory Church, Pembrokeshire, South Wales. The Vicar of Monkton, Rev. Tudor Evans told me the story of a Viking who lived again after 1,000 years.

"It is a historical fact," he began, "that many of the people in this part of Wales are of Viking blood, descended from the Norse adventurers who raided and settled these coasts two or three centuries before the Norman Conquest.

"One day not long ago I was visited here by a young man who gave his name as Nordin. He was a Swedish medical student from Stockholm, and he said he was descended from Vikings who, according to unimpeachable records, had come to Monkton twelve centuries ago.

"He was conscious of Monkton before he ever read of it," continued the vicar. "When he was just a child he found the word recurring in his mind, with other names and events and scenes which he couldn't account for.

"When he was a young man, he went to Berlin, and in a library there discovered that Monkton was an ancient village in South Wales. He then came here as soon as he could.

"He told me that he recognized the surroundings the moment he came to Pembroke though, of course, he had never been here before. He came direct from the station to the Prior


-without asking anyone the way. `I know for a fact,' he said, `that I lived here in a previous incarnation more than 1,000 years ago.'

"I took him up the church tower and we surveyed the surrounding country. He pointed at one place and said, 'When I was here before, there were walls over there.' I didn't know anything about it, but on investigating I found that there had been walls there in the past, just as he said. I took him through the Old Hall, and he showed me just where it had been altered. In every detail he was accurate."

This story, coming from some sources, might easily be scoffed at. But Mr.. Evans, as I said at first, is a most scrupulous scholar and clergyman. "How do you account for it?" I demanded. "I don't account for it," he replied. "I merely tell you what happened"




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THEOSOPHY UP TO DATE!


- EVOLUTION: As Outlined in The Archaic Eastern Records

Compiled and Annotated by Basil Crump.

S. Morgan Powell says in Montreal Star: "It is a great pity that there are not available more books such as this one by the Oriental scholar, Basil Crump .... Man is shown to be (and scientifically, not merely through philosophical dissertation) the highly complex product of three streams of evolution - spiritual, mental and physical. "

- BUDDHISM: The Science of Life. By Alice Leighton Cleather and Basil Crump.

This book shows that the Esoteric philosophy of H.P. Blavatsky is identical with the Esoteric Mahayana Buddhism of China, Japan and Tibet.

- THE VOICE OF THE SILENCE. Translated and Annotated by H. P. Blavatsky.

A faithful reprint of the original edition with an autograph foreword by H.S.H. The Tashi Lama of Tibet. Notes and Comments by Alice L. Cleather and Basil Crump. H.P.B. Centenary Edition, Peking, 1931. Third Impression.

- THE BLAVATSKY PAMPHLETS.

There are ten of these already published and they deal with various aspects of The Secret Doctrine, several of them being reprints of articles by H. P. Blavatsky.


The above may be had from The H.P.B. Library, 348 Foul Bay Road, Victoria, B.C., or The O. E. Library, 1207 Q Street N.W., Washington, D.C., or from The Blavatsky Association, 26 Bedford Gardens, Campden Hill, London, W. 8, England.